Title: A narrative review on the basic and clinical aspects of the novel SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19
Author(s): Joseph Hokello, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Girish C. Shukla, Mudit Tyagi
Year 2020
Publisher: Annals of Translational Medicine.
File: PDF
Keywords: Replication Transmission Pathogenesis SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)

The novel SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for causing the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease
19 (COVID-19), a systemic infection in humans. Ever since it was first detected in December 2019, the
number of confirmed cases has continued to increase. Within a short period, this disease has become a
global issue, and therefore it is characterized as a pandemic. The current understanding and explanations
are based on epidemiological, clinical and physiological observations. Besides, it remains a great challenge,
as much remains to be understood about this new disease-causing virus. Therefore, we seek to provide
an overview of SARS-CoV-2, including its classification, origin, genomic structure, replication cycle,
transmission, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatments, prevention and vaccine options. We
conducted a literature search for the articles published up to August 2020 using the keywords ‘SARCoV-
2’ and ‘COVID19’ in medical databases; PubMed, google scholar, EMBASE, and web of science.
Based on the information collected, the emerging COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, exhibits strong
infectivity but less virulence in terms of severity of disease and mortality rates in certain age groups. It
inflicts more damage in terms of peoples’ health and well-being, social life, and global economic impacts.
Unfortunately, there is no adequate global and standard response to this pandemic to date, and each
country is facing a crisis based on its situation, expertise, and hypotheses. While there is no effective
therapy and vaccine against the novel SARS-CoV-2 yet, preventive measures are the only tool available to
our disposal to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Ongoing and future research is focused
more on developing standard treatment strategies, and efficacious vaccines, which would be useful to
tackle this pandemic globally.