Title: Breast cancer A review of risk factors and diagnosis
Author(s): Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, PhDa,* , Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, BN Scb
Year 2024
Publisher: Medicine
File: PDF

Breast cancer remains a complex and prevalent health concern affecting millions of individuals worldwide. This review paper
presents a comprehensive analysis of the multifaceted landscape of breast cancer, elucidating the diverse spectrum of risk factors
contributing to its occurrence and exploring advancements in diagnostic methodologies. Through an extensive examination of
current literature, various risk factors have been identified, encompassing genetic predispositions such as BRCA mutations,
hormonal influences, lifestyle factors, and reproductive patterns. Age, family history, and environmental factors further contribute
to the intricate tapestry of breast cancer etiology. Moreover, this review delineates the pivotal role of diagnostic tools in the early
detection and management of breast cancer. Mammography, the cornerstone of breast cancer screening, is augmented by
emerging technologies like magnetic resonance imaging and molecular testing, enabling improved sensitivity and specificity in
diagnosing breast malignancies. Despite these advancements, challenges persist in ensuring widespread accessibility to screening
programs, particularly in resource-limited settings. In conclusion, this review underscores the importance of understanding diverse
risk factors in the development of breast cancer and emphasizes the critical role of evolving diagnostic modalities in enhancing
early detection. The synthesis of current knowledge in this review aims to contribute to a deeper comprehension of breast cancer’s
multifactorial nature and inform future directions in research, screening strategies, and preventive interventions.
Abbreviations: bCSCs = breast cancer stem cells, BRCA1 = breast cancer gene 1, BRCA2 = breast cancer gene 2, CSCs =
cancer stem cells, FNA = fine needle aspiration, HER2 = human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HRT = hormone replacement
therapy, WHI = Women’s Health Initiative.
Keywords: breast cancer, cancers, diagnosis, mortality, prevention, risk factors